June 2014


このページではJivamukti YogaのFocus of the monthを掲載しています。

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他者を通して合一する

”ヨガ”もしくは”合一”の状態とは、個々としての自己が無限であり、永遠である自己と再び結びつく状態です。ヨガがサマディ(三昧)又は至福のエクスタシーと述べられているのは、全てがバラバラな断線的、幻想世界を翻弄するといった幾度にも渡る人生のはてに、永遠なる完全な自己との再会を果たすからです。ヨガのメソッドとは、表面的にバラバラに見えるものを統一させる事なのです

エンライトメント(悟り)とは、全てのヨガの練習の先にあるゴールです。他を知覚する事とは、私達自身を他とは別だと知覚する事であり、悟りを目指す上での最大の障害になります。ヨガの練習を行うためには、私達の日常における”他”という認識を溶解して行く事が必要です。ヨガは私達に、全ては一つであるという真実を教えてくれます。他者という幻想は、私達の思考や過去のカルマ(行動)によって、映し出されます。ヨガの練習は私達のカルマ(他との関係)の浄化を促す事によって、一体化を悟る助けとなります。

パタンジャリ師は、古来のテキストであるヨガスートラにおいて、私達が他者という認識を溶解して、合一に向かうための練習法を幾つか提案しています。パタンジャリ師は、他を認識しているけれども、その断線的な状態を溶解していく事に興味がある物に対して、教えを説いています。

彼はこう勧めます。私達がまだ他を認識して、まだ聖なる合一を認識出来ていないのであれば、まず最初に彼らを傷つけない(アヒムサ)、2番目は彼らに嘘をつかない(サッティヤ)、3番目に彼らから盗まない(アステヤ)、4番目に彼らを性的に利用しない(ブラマチャリヤ)、そして5番目に欲張らない、彼らが貧しくなる原因を作らない。彼は第2章、ヨガの練習の章の中で”ヤマ”(制限)として、日常の中で他と関わる際に必要な5つの行動として説いています。

実践的な練習として、私達がどの様に他を扱っているかが私達が将来経験する事に影響します。私達の人生における他は、私達の毎日の生活が反映されたものなのです。もしも私達自身が苦しみから解放され、幸福と自由を望むのであれば、私達自身と生きとし生ける他との関係も、相互にとって有益であるべきなのです。真の永続する幸せとは、他に不幸を引き起こして得られる事ではありません。真なる永続する自由とは、他の自由を奪う事によって得る事は出来ないのです。

パタンジャリ師は、5つのヤマを習慣にし、定着させる事によって私達が日常において何が期待出来るのかを説きます。他を傷つけない事によって、傷つけられる事がなくなる。真実を語る事によって、周囲が私達の言う事を聞いてくれる様になる。他から盗む事を止める事によって、繁栄が訪れる。他を尊重し、利己的な理由で他を利用しない事によって、健康と活力を楽しむ事になる。欲張りになりがちな習性を正す事で、私達は何故生まれて来たのかという運命が明らかになるのです。

私達が誰なのかと追求したければ、私達が他をどの様に扱っているのかという事をまず真剣に見つめ直す事から始めましょう。何故ならば、他をどの様に扱っているのかが、私達自身がどの様に周囲から扱われるのかを定め、周囲がどの様に私達を扱うかは自己をどの様に見るかを定め、それが私達自身となるからです。

シンプルながら、パワフルなナマステムードラとは、両手を胸の前で合掌する挨拶です。2つの手の平を重ね合わせる、左手と右手、太陽と月、ハとタ、個人と他、これらはヨガであり、合一であり、永続する真実を意味する表意なのです。

ーシャロン ギャノン
翻訳;クマリ、パドミニ

Union through Others

The state of “yoga,” or “union,” is when the individual self reunites with the infinite, undifferentiated, eternal Self. Yoga has been described as samadhi, or blissful ecstasy, because it is such a relief to finally reconnect with your whole being after so many lifetimes of wandering in the illusionary world of disconnection. The methods of yoga help to bring together that which appears to be separate.

Enlightenment is the goal of all yoga practices. Perceiving others—that is, perceiving ourselves as separate from others—is the biggest obstacle to enlightenment. For a yoga practice to work, it must address how to dissolve the others in our lives. Yoga teaches us that in truth there is only oneness; others are an illusionary projection coming from our own minds, from our own pastkarmas (actions). The practices help us to purify our karmas, which involve our relationships with others, so that we may perceive the oneness of being.

In the ancient text, the Yoga Sutra, the sage Patanjali suggests a few practices that may help us dissolve otherness and bring us closer to union. Patanjali is speaking to those who are still seeing others but who are interested in dissolving the disconnection between self and other.

He suggests that if we are still seeing others and not the divine oneness of being, then: Number one—don’t hurt them (ahimsa); Number two—don’t lie to them (satya); Number three—don’t steal from them (asteya); Number four—don’t manipulate them sexually (brahmacharya); and Number five—don’t be greedy, taking so much that you impoverish them (aparigraha). He gives these directives in the second chapter, the chapter on practice, and he refers to them as the five yamas (restrictions)—five ways to restrict your behavior in regards to the others you may encounter in your life.

On an immediate practical level, how we treat others will be reflected in our own experience of life. The others in our lives are a reflection of us. If we ourselves desire happiness and liberation from suffering, then our relationships with all beings and things should be mutually beneficial. No true or lasting happiness can come from causing unhappiness to others. No true or lasting freedom can come from depriving others of their freedom.

Patanjali tells us what we can expect to see happen in our lives when we become established in the practices of the five yamas. When we stop harming others, others will cease to harm us. When we practice telling the truth, we will be listened to. When we stop stealing from others, prosperity will come to us. When we treat others respectfully and don’t manipulate them sexually, we will enjoy good health and vitality. And when we let go of tendencies toward greed, we will come to know the reason we were born, and with that our destiny will be revealed to us.

If we want to know who we are, it will have to start with how willing we are to look at the way we are treating others, because how we treat others determines how others treat us; how others treat us determines how we see ourselves; and how we see ourselves determines who we are.

The simple but powerful gesture of placing our two hands together in front of our hearts when we greet or acknowledge others (namaste mudra) speaks without words of the magic of union. Two hands coming together: the left and the right, the sun and the moon, the ha and the tha, the self and the other. This is the gesture that describes yoga: union, the ultimate truth.

—Sharon GannonUnion through others

The state of “yoga,” or “union,” is when the individual self reunites with the infinite, undifferentiated, eternal Self. Yoga has been described as samadhi, or blissful ecstasy, because it is such a relief to finally reconnect with your whole being after so many lifetimes of wandering in the illusionary world of disconnection. The methods of yoga help to bring together that which appears to be separate.

Enlightenment is the goal of all yoga practices. Perceiving others—that is, perceiving ourselves as separate from others—is the biggest obstacle to enlightenment. For a yoga practice to work, it must address how to dissolve the others in our lives. Yoga teaches us that in truth there is only oneness; others are an illusionary projection coming from our own minds, from our own pastkarmas (actions). The practices help us to purify our karmas, which involve our relationships with others, so that we may perceive the oneness of being.

In the ancient text, the Yoga Sutra, the sage Patanjali suggests a few practices that may help us dissolve otherness and bring us closer to union. Patanjali is speaking to those who are still seeing others but who are interested in dissolving the disconnection between self and other.

He suggests that if we are still seeing others and not the divine oneness of being, then: Number one—don’t hurt them (ahimsa); Number two—don’t lie to them (satya); Number three—don’t steal from them (asteya); Number four—don’t manipulate them sexually (brahmacharya); and Number five—don’t be greedy, taking so much that you impoverish them (aparigraha). He gives these directives in the second chapter, the chapter on practice, and he refers to them as the five yamas (restrictions)—five ways to restrict your behavior in regards to the others you may encounter in your life.

On an immediate practical level, how we treat others will be reflected in our own experience of life. The others in our lives are a reflection of us. If we ourselves desire happiness and liberation from suffering, then our relationships with all beings and things should be mutually beneficial. No true or lasting happiness can come from causing unhappiness to others. No true or lasting freedom can come from depriving others of their freedom.

Patanjali tells us what we can expect to see happen in our lives when we become established in the practices of the five yamas. When we stop harming others, others will cease to harm us. When we practice telling the truth, we will be listened to. When we stop stealing from others, prosperity will come to us. When we treat others respectfully and don’t manipulate them sexually, we will enjoy good health and vitality. And when we let go of tendencies toward greed, we will come to know the reason we were born, and with that our destiny will be revealed to us.

If we want to know who we are, it will have to start with how willing we are to look at the way we are treating others, because how we treat others determines how others treat us; how others treat us determines how we see ourselves; and how we see ourselves determines who we are.

The simple but powerful gesture of placing our two hands together in front of our hearts when we greet or acknowledge others (namaste mudra) speaks without words of the magic of union. Two hands coming together: the left and the right, the sun and the moon, the ha and the tha, the self and the other. This is the gesture that describes yoga: union, the ultimate truth.

—Sharon Gannon

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